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In violation of the Treaty of 1809 with the Lahore Darbar, the English pressured Maharaja Sher Singh to direct his feudal lords to withdraw from Lama’s territory. Gen Zorawar Singh was recalled but before the order could reach him, he was surrounded by a numerically superior Chinese force.
He was hit by a bullet and the enemy took away his body. About 20 km from the present Indo-Chinese border, the Tibetans raised a memorial in his honour — the only memorial in the world in the honour of a defeated commander at the place of his death at Tpyo, duly sanctified by a samadhi called “Singha-ka-chorten”.
During the Indo-Chinese war in 1962, the samadhi is said to have been demolished by the Chinese forces.
Thursday, July 17, 2008
Maharaja Ranjit Singh & Gen. Zorawar Singh13 Jul, 2008 9:43 AM
General Zorawar Singh Mann was an eminent dignitary of the Lahore Darbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The young Zorawar had joined the Dogra Corps of the Khalsa Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh as a boy messenger, in the unit stationed at Jammu under the command of then (Raja) Gulab Singh. He rose to the rank of Governor of Kishtawar by dint of his valour and war like qualities. He had remained loyal to Maharaja Ranjit Singh and used to seek his advice and blessings on military matters. It was further observed that it was the interference of the British, in a bid to protect their self-interest that weakened the General's position during his expedition to Lama's territory and ultimately led to his death. However, the General's death was avenged by the Punjab army within months and the Chinese forces were completely routed in August 1842. It may be recollected that the Postal Department had published a brief biographical note on General Zorawar Singh in the information brochure that was published along with the commemorative postage stamp released on 31.12.2000. Some additional information was furnished by the Hon'ble Sardar Simranjit Singh Mann, Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha), would be of interest to the general public.Link to the Postal Stamp of S. Zorawar Singh Mann released by Department of Posts India: http://www.indiapost.gov.in/Philately/newsletter2.html
Mann Family History 13 Jul, 2008 9:41 AM
The jats of the Punjab are divided into some 90 tribes with numberless sub divisions. Of these, the three oldest & from whom many of the others have descended are the tribes Mann, Haer & Bhullar.When the ancestors of the mann jats emigrated to the Panjab.They were orignally Rajputs,and inhabited the country about delhi,and to this day near Jaipur,Thakur Mann Rajputs are to be found.Of this tribe and caste are Many famillies distinguished in Punjab history.There is the Amritsar family of Mananwala,The Gujaranwala family of mogalchak,while to other branch Khan Singh Mann of multan celebrity and his gallant cousin Bhag Singh belonged.Chief of the Ramnagar branch was Sardar Desa Singh Mann,Kardar of the Ramnagar Parganna,whose great grandson Ganda Singh,the only representative of the family, is living great poverty at Amritsar. Of the Mann-blood,also,are the once powerful houses of Bhagga and Malwa,now represented by Sardar Bhup Singh Dabbanwala and Sardar Sarup SinghMalwai.Ladda,the founder of the Mogalchak family,left Delhi in the year of a great drought and famine,and settled in the waste country near Gujranwala,where he found the little village of Mann,and was made headman over a circle of 22 Villages. This office of Chowhri remained in the family for many generations till the decline of the Muhammadan power. Nikka,the fourth in descent from ladda, founded the village of Nikka Mann ,but this soon passed out of his hands on account o a failure to meet the government demand and Mir Hamaza ,Governer of Imanabad,gave it to his brother Mirza Kilah,who destroyed it and built hard by a new village which is called mogalchak. this village the Mann family purchased latter from the descedants of of Mirza Kilah,and here they now reside. Sarja Singh is said to have been a follower of Sardar Charat Singh Sukhchakia ,but little is known about him. He died in 1763 ,leaving four sons Jai Singh, Mana Singh, Nar singh and Pahar singh.
Pahaar Singh Mann13 Jul, 2008 9:38 AM
Pahaar Singh: though the youngest of the brothers be more conveniently, will treated of first; as he was the most distinguished, and it was in a great measure through his assistance that his brothers rose in the world .He entered Charrat Singh’s service as a trooper; but soon distinguished himself for energy and courage; obtained a grant of the four villages Jokian, Kalerh, Sal and Takuan, worth Rs 3,277 and assumed the titlr of Sardar Under Singh Mahan Singh Sukarchakia his influence steadily increased, and he obtained Rs 11000 of additional Jagirs near Ramnagar. He showed great gallantry in the many campaigns against the Chatthas; and under Ranjit Singh he served at Attock, Baisa and elsewhere. At the time of his death, in 1813 his Jagirs amounted tp upwards of 2 Lakhs of rupees, subject to the service of 500 horses, 2 guns and 7 zamburahs or camel swivels. Left one son Hari Singh a minor, and Sardar Hukma Singh Chimmi was appointed his guardian. Rs47,000 of his fathers Jagirs were released to him, subject to the service of 125 horses; and when he became old enough to enter the army he was placed under Misr Diwan Chand, with whom he served at Bannu and Multan. He died of paralysis in 1821, being only 22 years of age. His two sons Jagat Singh and Partab Singh were, at their father’s death, infants and the Jagirs were consequently resumed; with the exception of Rs 5,200 subject to the service of 18 horsemen . In 1843 Jaggat Singh was appointed orderly officer of Raja Hira Singh, and Pratab Singh was made commandant in the Miwiwala regiment. Under the Darbar, Jaggat Singh was colonel of a cavalry regiment. Which formed part of Maharaja Dalip Singh’s body guard, and during the disturbance of 1848 – 49, he with his troops remained faithful to government. Jagat Singh died in 1860, leaving two sons, Nihal Singh and Narain Singh aged respectively 22 and 13 years at the time of his death. Jaggay Singh was in the enjoyment of Jagirs worth Rs4000 of these a portion have been resumed, and his sons hold, in perpetuity, Rs1,637 being the Mouza of Kalerh, and a share of Mogalchak in the Gujaranwala district
Nar Singh Mann13 Jul, 2008 9:37 AM
Nar Singh: rebels and fought throughout the campaign of 1848-49. Baghel Singh , who accompanied Major H.B. Edwardesto Multan, stood firm; but died early in 1849 at Hanad in the Dera Ismail Khan district.After annexation, the jagirs of Rattan Singh were resumed; but he received a pension of Rs 1,080 which lapsed at his death in 1857. Sant Singh is in receipt of a pension of Rs 72 and his also holds a share in Mouza Mogulchak. Gulab Singh, third son of Rattan Singh, is a convert to Muhammadanism, and is not acknowledged by his family. Was a misldar of th Sukarchakin confederacy, an fought under Mahan Singh at Manchar and Akalghar. He died young, and his three sons recio yhe amount of Rs 3,500 out of hived allowance out of his jagirs. When Rattan Singh grew up, he was made adjutant in Miwiwala regiment and received estates in Gujaranwala and Gurdaspur to the value of Rs 1200. He accompanied Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa to Kashmir and was in 1820, very wounded at Mangli in the Kashmir hills where Hari Singh was reducing a strong fort defende by the mountaineers. For his services on this occasion he received a grant of Kharak in Gujaranwla and the command of the regiment.His brother Baghal Singh, about this time was made adjutant in dhonkal Singhs regiment. Under Maharaja Kharrak Singh, Rattan Singh was sent in the force of Sardar Sham Singh to Kullu and Mandi, where he was engaged fornearly two years in reducing the hill tribes to obedience. He was created a general unde Sardar Jowahir singh and Kila Desa Singh Anoshera were given to him in jagir. Baghal Singh was, in 1845, made commandant in his old regiment. Rattan Singh fought throughout in the Satlej campaign, and soon after its close he was reduced to the rank of colonel, and his Jagirs were reduced to Rs5,000 with Rs1,000 free of service. He was serving at Peshawar in October 1848, when the troops there mutinied. Major general Lawrence spoke well at him and he appears to have done his best to bring the mutineers to a sense of their duty, till the tide of rebellion became so strong that he was himself carried away by it. His son Sant Singh, then 30 years old, also joined.
Jai Singh Mann13 Jul, 2008 9:36 AM
Jai Singh: married his daughter Mai Mann to Mahan Singh Sukarcharia, and although this lady bore no children, yet the alliance very materially helped to build up the family fortunes. Under Ranjit Singh the family was very powerful, and at one time there was no less than twenty two members of it holding military appointments of trust and honour. Sardar Jai Singh died young, but his sons were confirmed it had possession of their father's estates. Diwan singh did not long survive his father, and Mihir Singh the second son was killed in Kashmir in 1814. Jiodh Singh, who was a colonel with jagirs worth Rs7,550 joined the rebels with his nephew Jamiyal Singh, but returned to Lahore before the end of the campaign. The jagirs of this branch of the family were resumed after annexation. Jodh Singh was allowed a pension of Rs 720 which he still holds. Fateh Singh son of Sardar Diwan Singh was orignally one of Ranjit Singhs orderlies. He was made adjutant of military , and under Sardar Jawahar Singh commandant. After the Satlej campaign, Raja Lal Singh appointed him commandant in his Cousin Budh Singh's regiment on Rs 1,800 a month. He was with his cousin during the disturbances of 1848, and joined Captain Nicholson at the same time with him. One Third of his salary of Rs. 1800 was granted to him for life. In 1862, he was appointed Honorary Magistrate of Gujranwala. Anup Singh the eldest son of Jodah Singh enters the first Sikh irregular cavalry, afterwards better known as "Probyn's Horse" where it was first raised in August 1857, under the orders of Sir John Lawrence. After the fall of Delhi, Anup Singh accompanied the regiment to Oude and was present at the capture of Lukhnow in March, 1858. He served through the whole of the Baiswarra campaign, in the hot weather of 1858; and in the spring of 1859 in the Trans Gogra campaign. Where the fighting was the sharpest the 1st Sikhs were always to be found; and among many brave men Anup Singh distinguished himself for his cool and determined courage. During the Hindostan Campaign he was four times wounded, and had three horses wounded under him. In January 1860, he volunteered for China with his regiment and served with great credit throughout the campaign. He was again wounded, and his horse was again wounded under him. The regiment was present with the force, during the late disturbances on the north – west frontier; and, on one occasion, when it was engaged with the bonairs, at Ambeyla, Anup Singh particularly distinguished himself and was very severely wounded in single combat with one of the enemy. He was twice received the order of valor for bravery in the field and has been granted a jagir of Rs500 per annum. The services of Anup Singh deserve especial notice. He is one of the finest native officer in the army; of undoubted loyalty, of conspicuous bravery, and a worthy representative of the old and gallant family to which he belongs.Gurbaksh Singh his younger brother, was allowed by the commander – in –chief, in compliment to Anup Singh, to enter his brother’s regiment, when a child only 10 years of age. Ganda Singh son of Sher Singh also enlisted in the regiment in 1857, and served with the corps till its return from China in 1861. He then took his discharge and is at present in civil employ at Gujranwala. Joala Singh son of Fatah Singh entered the regiment with Anup Singh. He was a very promising soldier, and was killed in action at Nawabgang.
Mana Singh Mann13 Jul, 2008 9:35 AM
Mana Singh: Like his other brothers, he was a subordinate chief in the following of Sardar Mahan Singh Sukarchakia, from whom he received the estates of Pindori Kalan, Pindori Khurd and others. On his death in 1807 his elder son Sadda Singh succeeded to all his jagirs, and to the command of the contingent. This young man distinguished himself in the Kashmir campaign where he was four times wounded, and received for his services a share in the Mannawar Ilaka worth Rs.12000. Sadda Singh died childless and Mannawar with other of his jagirs was resumed; but his brother Amir Singh, the handsome most man in the Khalsa army, was made a general and large estates were granted to him. The third son Sham Singh was created a Colonel on Rs.5000 per annum, and Hukum Singh a commandant. In 1840 Amir Singh died without issue; and his jagir of Rs.11000 was assigned to his brother Budh Singh with the rank of general. Amir Singh’s battalion, consisting of four infantry regiments, one cavalry regiment and two troops of artillery, was also placed under his command. Budh Singh had at this time being 24 years in the Sikh army. He had first entered it in 1816, as an orderly (Senapati, Chief) of the Maharaja, on Rs3800 per annum, and this post he had held for five years. He had then, on his brother Sadda Singh’s death received command of 30 horsemen, with a jagir of Rs. 17000 and after this had been commandant and colonel in General Court’s brigade, on Rs.4015. Under Maharaja Sher Singh his emoluments were reduced, for he was brother-in-law of Sardar Attar Singh Sidhanwalia and Sher Singh’s policy, at the commencement of his reign was to destroy the power of Sidhanwalia house. Budh Singh served throughout the Satlej campaign, and shortly after its close he was reduced to the rank of a colonel in the Mann battalion and sent with Sher Singh